PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
GRAIN QUALITY DEPENDING
ON THE VARIETY
Uman, National University of Horticulture
determined that the
grain of investigated winter wheat varieties has
good physical characteristics of quality. Big kernel size have
such varieties as
Afina, Artia, Lastivka
Odeska, Tronka and Plutos, which is 2.8–3.0 mm, but such varieties as Zolotokolosa, Donetska 48 and Lupus have higher grain unit – 756–782 g/l. Big weight
per 1000 kernels have the varieties Podolianka, Afina, Artia, Zolotokolosa, Myronivska 808, Lastivka
Odeska, Tronka, Donetska 48, Lupus.
winter wheat, linear
dimensions, kernel size, weight
per 100 kernels, grain
Improvement of wheat quality is
one of the main ways to improve agricultural production. The value of wheat
protein consist in the fact that the gliadin and glutenin in the water forming
protein complex – gluten. The higher gluten content in grain and the better its
physical properties balanced the better are baking properties of flour .
Also important is the grinding
capacity of wheat which is affected by kernel size and leveling, the shape of
grains, weight per 100 kernels and glassiness, depending
on the protein content. That’s why, the increase in protein content helps to
increase the weight per 100 kernels and glassiness,
which in turn contributes to greater output flour and improves its structure [1,
M.I. Vavylov, and then also
I.M. Eremeev on the example of the world known variety Ukrainka 0246, proved
that one, even the best variety is not able to satisfy all the needs of the
the variety in ensuring the stability of crop area is well known.
It provides up to a
surcharge gross grain production. The
innovative potential of new varieties and hybrids increases the efficiency of
modern agricultural technologies, payback of technological factors through
greater productivity, better grain quality and higher resistance to biotic and
abiotic factors of the environment .
Experimental work was carried out in the short
experiment of Uman National University of Horticulture during the 2011–2012.
technique of winter wheat growing is common for Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of
the experiment winter wheat was grown, which the precursor was oats for green
total area of the plot in the short experiment was
repetition of the experiment – four times, placement of the plots was
of field investigations, making observations and research was carried out in
accordance with the recommendations, guidelines and manuals of recent years.
For qualitative assessment of
yield in grain winter wheat the grain unit was determined in accordance with
GOST 10840–64, weight per 1000 kernels in accordance
with GOST 10842–76, kernel size – according to the method of state variety
of the research. Kernel
size of winter wheat also changed depending on the place of variety creation
and weather conditions during the years of research. Thus, on the average,
during two years of research the kernel size of winter wheat varieties ranged
between 2,6–2,8 – 2.8–3.0. Among the varieties cultivated under the conditions
of the Right-Bank Forest Steppe by the varieties Afina and Artia the kernel
size was 2.8–3.0. By other varieties the kernel size was 2,6–2,8 that was at
the varieties that are created under the conditions of steppe only by the
varieties Lastivka Odeska and Tronka the kernel size was 2.8–3.0, and the by
the variety Donetska 48 – 2,6–2,8.
of foreign selection had the following kernel size: variety Torrild – 2,4–2,6 ,
Lupus – 2,6–2,8 , Plutos – 2,6–3,0.
research determined that weight per 1000 kernels
was significantly affected by weather conditions. Thus, lack of moisture and
high air temperature during the ripening of winter wheat in 2012 helped to
reduce weight per 1000 kernels.
Therefore, weight per 1000 kernels
was higher in 2011 and the largest weight was observed by the variety Afina –
general over the two years of research weight
per 1000 kernels of winter wheat ranged from
34,6 to 52,5 g. Of the varieties created under the conditions of Right-Bank
Forest Steppe, the variety Afina showed the biggest weight
per 1000 kernels – 52,5 g, exceeding the
control at 7 g or 15 %. By other varieties weight
per 1000 kernels ranged from 38,7 to 43,6 g
the varieties created under the conditions of northern Forest Steppe none of
the varieties exceed weight per 1000 kernels
of Podolianka variety. The smallest weight
per 1000 kernels had the variety Favorytka –
40.5 g, weight per 1000 kernels
of other varieties ranged from 41,7 to 44,8 g or 1,5–8 % lower than by the
varieties that were created under the conditions of steppe the weight
per 1000 kernels had the variety Tronka – 46.8
g, exceeding the control by 1.3 g or 3 %. By the variety Donetska 48 weight
per 1000 kernels was 45.5 g, which was
comparable to Podolianka variety and variety Lastivka Odeska had weight
per 1000 kernels 44.6 g or 2% less, compared
with the control.
On the average over the two
years of research the grain unit of winter wheat ranged from 662 to 782 g/l.
Among the varieties created under the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest
Steppe only Zolotokolosa variety exceeded control, its grin unit was 756 g/l.
The grain unit of other varieties ranged from 662 to 728 g/l.
Among the varieties created
under the conditions steppe all the varieties had high grain unit. The largest
grain unit was by the variety Donetska 48 – 782 g / l, the grain unit of other
varieties ranged from 730 to 739 g/l.
By the varieties of foreign selection variety Lupus exceeded
control, hits grain unit was – 778 g/l, which was more than 6.8% compared with
the control. Grain unit of other varieties ranged from 711 to 723 g/l.
Favorable temperature and water regime in 2011 contributed to
the formation of a larger grain unit of winter wheat, which ranged from 672
to790 g/l. High air temperatures during the growing season of wheat and lack of
moisture in the stage of grain formation caused the smaller grain units.
It was determined by the research that winter wheat is characterized by high
technological properties that vary considerably depending on the variety. Big
kernel size (2,8–3.0 mm) have the varieties Afina, Artia, Lastivka Odeska,
Tronka and Plutos, but the highest grain unit have the varieties Zolotokolosa,
Donetska 48 and Lupus, which ranged from 756 to 782 g/l. Big weight
per 1000 kernels have the varieties Podolianka,
Afina, Artia, Zolotokolosa, Myronivska 808, Lastivka Odeska , Tronka, Donetsk
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