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HYDROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND GROUND WATER TYPE IN ABEOKUTA AREA, SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA

 

 

OhijE L.D., Oladipo M.O.

Department of Geophysics,(MSc student),

National Minning University, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine.

Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, (PhD student)

National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine,Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine.

 

Abstract

The focus of this work was done to determine the ground H20 type and evaluate the suitability of the ground H20 for domestic purposes in Abeokuta South western Nigeria. A total number of 19 water samples were collected around the 3 major rock types that exist in the study area and were analysed for major anions, cations and trace elements. Result of hydrochemical analyses reveal Ca2+and Na+ as the major cations with average concentration of 1.31meq/l and 2.60meq/l, bicarbonate and Chloride as the dominant anions with an average value of 1.87meq/l and 2.03meq/l in porphyroblastic gneiss, Ca2+and Na+ as the major cations with average concentration of 1.00meq/l and 1.19meq/l, bicarbonate and Chloride as the dominant anions with an average value of 0.77meq/l and 1.26meq/l in porphyritic biotite granite while in the migmatite gneiss major cations were Ca2+and Na+ with an average concentration of 1.60meq/l and 1.49meq/l, bicarbonate as the dominant anions with an average value of 1.64meq/l. Hydrochemical characterization of the water samples revealed that the water samples collected around the porphyritic biotite granite and porphyroblastic gneiss were mostly of a Ca-HCO3 water type with isolated Na-Cl water type, all characterized with low total dissolve solid ranging from 193-489mg/l for the porphyritic biotite granite and a range of 173-441mg/l for the porphyroblastic gneiss. However water sample around the migmatite gneiss profile were characterized by both Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 water type. The combination of these two water type suggests a possible cation exchange process which leads to the evolution of Ca-HCO3 to Na-HCO3 water type. However, Ca-HCO3 water type could be attributed to carbonic acid attacking rocks and makes them vulnerable to chemical weathering; hence calcium can be released in to ground water hosted by a plagioclase rich rock. A comparison of the trace elements found in water samples for all the three rock types with the WHO/EU standard shows that Al and Fe are in excess with a value of 0.53mg/l for Al and 0.49mg/l for Fe in the migmatite gneiss, a value of 0.28mg/l for Al and 0.38mg/l for Fe in the porphyroblastic gneiss and a value of 0.21mg/l for the Al and 0.34mg/l for Fe in the porphyritic biotite granite which indicates that the ground water in the study area is not suitable for drinking.

Keywords: Groundwater, Hydrochemical analysis, Rock types, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

1     Introduction

The location of the study area lies within Latitude 70 07’N and 70 11’N and Longitude of 0030 16’E and 0030 22’E of the Greenwich Meridian respectively on the federal survey topographical map. The study area is connected by major road networks, minor roads and network of foot path linking villages around the study area. Figure 1, shows the road network map of the study area and the sampling point.

1.1  Local Geology

The rock type found around Abeokuta area were Biotite Granite gneiss, Porhyriticbiotite granite, Migmatite gneiss, Porphyroblastic gneiss and Biotite gneiss, but for these study emphasis was only on Porphyritic biotite gneiss, Migmatite gneiss, and Porphyroblastic gneiss. The geologic map of the study area is shown in the figure 2.

1.1.1           Migmatite Gneiss

They are found in the North western part extending South wards and at the extreme North Eastern part of Abeokuta. They were generally low lying and extensive. The texture is fine to medium, with strong foliation, they show the presence of faults and joint.

1.1.2           Porphyroblastic Gneiss

They are found at the North extending to the east and Southern part of Abeokuta overlying the Abeokuta formation. They are moderately extensive. The textures were coarse with quartz phenocryst .They show the presence of fault and joints.

1.1.3           PorphyritcBiotite Granite

They are found at the East Southern part of Abeokuta overlying the Abeokuta formation. They occur at the higher elevation in Abeokuta. The textures were fine to medium grain with quartz phenocryst; they show the presence of fault and joints.

 

Fig1: Map of Abeokuta town showing locations and sampling points

 

Fig 2: Geologic map of Abeokuta

 

2     Hydrogeology of the study area

Hydrogeologically, like in other typical basement complex terrain, the groundwater occurrence in the study area is greatly controlled by the bedrock geology. Usually, unweathered or fresh rocks on their own hardly have any potential in terms of groundwater occurrence and flow, however appreciable porosity and permeability may develop depending on the degree of fracturing and the extent of in-situ weathering (Freeze and cherry,1979). Investigation during the course of field work for this study revealed that varied distribution of the rock type in terms of their mineralogy and the resulting differential weathering are responsible for variation in the thickness of the in-situ weathered regolith, hence the difference in water bearing potential at different locations.

 

Figure 3: A map showing the Drainage pattern in Abeokuta town

 

2.1  Geomorphology and drainage

The relief of the study is generally undulating characterized by rugged surfaces seen in the basement complex area as small hills or pediments.

 In the study area, a dendritic type of drainage pattern exists. The major river draining the study area is Ogun River and its tributaries. Figure 3 shows the drainage map of the study area.

2.2  Climate and vegetation

Abeokuta town falls within the south-western part of Nigeria. It is characterized by tropical climate and rain forest vegetation. The two climatic seasons (wet and dry) of this region were caused by the regular and periodic movement of air masses which come through the south-western and north- eastern part of the country respectively.

 The south-western monsoon wind blows across the ocean and is thus laden with moisture which is precipitated as rainfall which support the rain forest type of vegetation in this region after a year .The dust laden aid blows over the Sahara between November and February and it’s responsible for the dry season.

Abeokuta has a mean annual temperature range of 26°c -28°c with annual rainfall of about 1,300 mm.

3     Materials and Methods

A total number of 19 water samples were collected around the 3 major rock types that exist in the study area and were analysed for major anions, cations and trace elements using inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrophotometry (ICP-MS) at Acme Laboratory, Vancouver, Canada.

Water samples collected around each rock type were transferred into sample bottles. In collecting the water samples the following methods were adopted.

The sample bottles were rinsed with some of the fetched water. Two sample bottles were filled with the water that was fetched. The smallest of the sample bottle was acidified with nitric acid using needle and syringe which were used to suck out HNO3 from acid bottle and to press out the acid into the bottle. The bottles were labelled accordingly and were persevered in a cooler containing ice cube.

The sampling points were correctly placed on the map at each location. A schoeller plot of the chemical analysis of the water samples was made in milliequivalent per litre (meq/l) and from the plot we could decipher our dominant cations and anions to know the water type in the study area.

WHO/EU Standard was adopted to compare the excess trace element present in the water sample.

4     Results

4.1  Hydrochemical Analysis

Source and movement of groundwater itself and the interaction with the geologic (acquifer) materials are said to be the major contaminants of the chemical characters (Chebotarev, 1955).

Results of the chemical analyses and schoeller graph of the water samples are presented in milliequivalent per litre (meq/l), Table 1, 2 and 3, and figure 4, 5, 6. From the plot we could decipher our dominant cations and anions to know the water type in the study area.

4.1.1           Porphyritic biotite granite

The water samples collected around the porphyritic biotite granite rock type has pH ranging between 5.1 and 6.7 indicating slightly acidic water. Average concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ are 1.00meq/l, 0.40meq/l, 1.19meq/l and 0.37meq/l. Dominant anions include bicarbonate and chloride with an average value of 0.77meq/l, and 1.26meq/l, and that of SO42- and NO3- are 0.64meq/l and 0.21meq/l respectively.

4.1.2           Porphyroblastic gneiss

The water samples collected around the porphyroblastic gneiss rock type has pH ranging between 5.9 and 7.0 indicating slightly acidic waters. Average concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ are 1.31meq/l, 0.79meq/l, 2.60meq/l and 0.15meq/l. Dominant anions include bicarbonate and Chloride with an average value of 1.87meq/l, 2.03meq/l and that of SO42- and NO3- are 08.0meq/l and 0.14meq/l respectively.

4.1.3           Migmatite gneiss

The water samples collected around the migmatite rock type generally have a pH that ranging between 6.9 and 7.0 indicating slightly acidic and very slightly alkaline water. Average concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ are 1.60meq/l, 0.93meq/l, 1.49meq/l and 1.24meq/l. Bicabonate is the dominant anion with an average of 1.64meq/l and that of Cl-, SO42- and NO3- are 1.24meq/l, 0.76meq/l and 0.36meq/l respectively.

 

Table1: Showing concentration of major ions present in the water sample in the PorphyritcBiotite Granite

Samples

PH

Temp

TDS

Ca2+

Mg2+

Na+

K+

HCO3-

CL-

SO42-

NO3-

PBG01

5.7

27.6

489

1.14

0.73

0.71

1.41

0.57

1.92

1.08

0.35

PBG02

5.6

29.1

323

0.43

0.19

2.06

0.12

0.49

1.86

0.31

0.08

PBG03

6.3

28.7

366

0.75

0.38

2.12

0.1

0.75

1.51

0.48

0.4

PBG05

6.7

29.5

222

1.1

0.27

0.55

0.17

0.79

0.8

0.52

0.09

PBG06

6.7

28.6

428

2.28

0.44

1.4

0.19

1.72

1.23

0.81

0.14

PBG07

5.1

27.9

224

0.3

0.22

1.01

0.25

0.25

0.92

0.39

0.52

PBG09

5.3

29.3

193

0.44

0.22

0.81

0.1

0.3

0.79

0.47

0.09

PBG10

5.3

28.7

346

1.59

0.79

0.87

0.57

1.33

1.04

1.04

0.01

Concentration of ions in meq/l, Temp in 0C, TDS in mg/l.

 

Table 2: Showing concentration of major ions present in the water sample of the Porphyroblastic Gneiss

Samples

PH

Temp

TDS

Ca2+

Mg2+

Na+

K+

HCO3-

CL-

SO42-

NO3-

PG01

6.3

29.1

441

1.12

1.7

1.5

0.05

1.98

1.39

0.85

0.08

PG02

7.0

28.4

682

0.95

0.62

5.06

0.02

2.4

2.59

1.52

0.03

PG03

6.4

28.7

621

1.25

0.5

3.71

0.16

2.1

2.75

0.75

0.01

PG04

5.9

28.8

355

0.74

0.62

1.83

0.12

1.18

1.48

0.64

0.34

PG05

6.4

29.2

430

1.75

1.31

1.15

0.08

2.1

1.44

0.63

0.1

PG06

6.3

28.9

373

1.37

0.54

1.35

0.2

1.77

1.22

0.59

0.09

PG07

5.9

29.5

173

0.95

0.08

0.75

0.06

1.07

0.6

0.35

0.14

Concentration of ions in meq/l, Temp in 0C, TDS in mg/l.

 

Table 3: Showing concentration of major ions present in the water sample in the Migmatite Gneiss

Samples

PH

Temp

TDS

Ca2+

Mg2+

Na+

K+

HCO3-

CL-

SO42-

NO3-

MG03

6.7

28.9

305

0.77

0.77

0.54

0.04

0.61

0.79

0.6

0.08

MG04

6.9

28.4

126

1.66

1.11

1.3

0.14

1.75

1.19

0.75

0.25

MG05

7

28.6

173

3.05

1.21

2.15

0.05

2.75

1.76

1.01

0.52

MG06

7

29.6

306

2.16

0.73

1.35

0.41

1.77

1.54

0.8

0.5

MG07

6.8

29.6

444

1.37

0.45

1.25

0.25

1.44

1

0.63

0.36

MG08

6.8

28.9

443

1.04

0.61

1.07

0.04

0.84

0.51

0.67

0.72

MG09

7.0

29.9

261

2.14

1.79

3.47

0.1

3.33

2.1

1.15

0.3

Concentration of ions in meq/l, Temp in 0C, TDS in mg/l.

 

Figure 4: Schoeller graph showing distribution profile of ionic components in the water samples from the Porphyritic Biotite Granite bedrock units

 

Figure 5: Schoeller graph showing distribution profile of ionic components in the water samples from the Porphyroblastic Gneiss bedrock units

 

Figure 6: Schoeller graph showing distribution profile of ionic components in the water samples from the Migmatite Gneiss bedrock units

 

4.2  Trace element present in water

The trace elements found in water samples for all the three rock types compared with the WHO/EU standard shows that Al and Fe are in excess with a value of 0.53mg/l for Al and 0.49mg/l for Fe in the migmatite gneiss, a value of 0.28mg/l for Al and 0.38mg/l for Fe in the porphyroblastic gneiss and a value of 0.21mg/l for the Al and 0.34mg/l for Fe in the porphyritic biotite granite. The EU standards are more recent (1998), but not as complete and strict as the WHO standards (1993).

 

Table 4: showing WHO/EU drinking water standard in compared with the concentration of trace element present in water sample

Trace Element

WHO STANDARDS

(1993) in mg/l

EU STANDARDS

(1998) in mg/l

MG. Ave Conc (mg/l)

PG

Ave Conc (mg/l)

PBG.

Ave Conc (mg/l)

Aluminium(Al)

0.2

0.2

0.5343

0.2831

0.2141

Arsenic(As)

0.01

0.01

0.0010

0.0013

0.0006

Barium(Ba)

0.3

Not mentioned

0.2348

0.1231

0.0933

Boron(B)

0.3

1.00

0.0108

0.0152

0.0152

Cadmium(Cd)

0.003

0.005

BDL

BDL

BDL

Chromium(Cr)

0.05

0.05

0.0033

0.0022

0.0021

Copper(Cu)

2.0

2.0

0.8666

0.0038

0.0025

Iron(Fe)

No guide line

0.2

0.4932

0.3785

0.3407

Lead(Pb)

0.01

0.01

0.0036

0.0028

0.0029

Manganese(Mn)

0.5

0.05

0.1523

0.0762

0.0514

Molibdenum(Mo)

0.07

Not mentioned

0.0008

0.0006

0.0002

Nickel(Ni)

0.02

0.02

0.0034

0.0014

0.0009

Zinc(Zn)

3.0

Not mentioned

0.0194

0.0152

0.0154

BDL: Below detection limit; MG: Migmatite gneiss; PG:

Porphyroblastic gneiss; PBG: Porphyritic biotite granite

5     Conclusion

In this study, hydrochemical characterization revealed that the water samples collected around the Porphyritic Biotite Granite and Porphyroblastic Gneiss were mostly Ca-HCO3 water type with isolated Na-Cl water type, all characterized with low total dissolve solid ranging from 193-489 mg/l for the porphyritic biotite granite, and 173-441 mg/l for the porphyroblastic gneiss. However, water sample around the migmatite gneiss profile were characterized by both Ca-HCO3 and Na- HCO3 water type. The combination of these two water type suggests a possible cation exchange process which leads to the evolution of Ca-HCO3 to Na-HCO3 water type. Ca-HCO3 water type could be attributed to carbonic acid attacking rocks and make them vulnerable to chemical weathering; hence calcium can be released into ground water hosted by a plagioclase rich rock.

The trace elements in the water samples for all the three rock types shows that Al and Fe are in excess, and the comparison to WHO/EU standard indicates that the ground water in the study area is not suitable for drinking.

 

References

1.     Ajayi, J.O. &Agagu, O.K., Mineralogy of primary clay deposits in the Basement Complex of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Mining and Geology, Vol.18, pp. 27-30, 1981.

2.     Annor, A.E., Thermo-tectonic evolution of the basement complex around Okene, Nigeria with special reference to deformation mechanism, Pre Cambrian Research Journal of Mining and Geology, Vol.28, pp. 269-281, 1986.

3.     Chebotarev, I.I., Metamorphism of natural water in the crust of weathering I, II &III.GeochimcosmochinActa 8, pp. 22-48,137-170, 198-212, 1955.

4.     Chen, P., Lin, M. &Zheng, Z., On the origin of the name kaolin and the kaolin deposits of the Kauling and Dazhou areas, Kiangsi, China. Appl Clay Sci 12, 1-25, 1997.

5.     Colman, S.M. &Dethier, D.P., Rates of chemical weathering of rocks and minerals. Academic Press, Orlando, FL. 1986.

6.     Cooray, P.G., Notes on the Charnokites of the Akure and Ado Ekiti areas, western Nigeria. African Geol. University of Ibadan Press. pp.45-53, 1972.

7.     Elueze, A.A. &Bolarinwa, A.T., Petrochemistry and petrogenesis of granite gneiss in Abeokuta area, South-western Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, vol.40 (1), pp.1-8, 2004.

8.     Elueze, A.A. &Kehinde-Phillips, O.O., Mineralogical and geochemical features of lateritic profiles above antophyllite schist, Itan-oan, south-western Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Mining and Geology; Vol.29, pp.1-10, 1993.

9.     Emfurieta, W.O. & Salami, A.O., A comparative study on two Kaoline deposits in south-western, Nigerian. Mining and geochemistry Soc., pp. 15-27, 1988.

10.  European Union, Guidelines for drinking Quality. 1998.

11.  Freeze, R.A. & Cherry, J.A., Groundwater. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New jersey, pp.604, 1979.

12.  Islam M.R., Stuart R., Risto A., &Vesa P., Mineralogy changes during intense chemical weathering of sedimentary rocks in Bangladesh. J. Asian Earth Sci. 20. pp 889-901, 2002.



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Тринадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(28 октября - 09 ноября 2011 г.)
(отчет)
Четырнадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(12-20 декабря 2011 г.)
(отчет)
Пятнадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(01-07 марта 2012 г.)
(отчет)
Шестнадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(09-14 апреля 2012 г.)
(отчет)
Семнадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(22-26 октября 2012 г.)
(отчет)
Восемнадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(22-26 декабря 2012 г.)
(отчет)
Девятнадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(26 февраля - 3 марта 2013 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(20-28 апреля 2013 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать первая научно-практическая конференция
(13-18 мая 2013 г.)
(отчет)
Первая международная научно-практическая конференция
"Перспективные направления отечественной науки - ХХI век"
(13-18 мая 2013 г.)
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Двадцать вторая научно-практическая конференция
(4-9 ноября 2013 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать третья научно-практическая конференция
(10-15 декабря 2013 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать четвертая научно-практическая конференция
(20-25 января 2014 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать пятая юбилейная научно-практическая конференция
(3-7 марта 2014 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать шестая научно-практическая конференция
(7-11 апреля 2014 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать седьмая научно-практическая конференция
(20-25 мая 2014 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать восьмая научно-практическая конференция
(08-13 октября 2014 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать девятая научно-практическая конференция"
(19-25 ноября 2014 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцатая научно-практическая конференция
(19-25 января 2015 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать первая научно-практическая конференция
(25 февраля - 1 марта 2015 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать вторая научно-практическая конференция
(2 - 7 апреля 2015 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать третья научно-практическая конференция
(20 - 27 мая 2015 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать четвертая научно-практическая конференция
(13 - 17 октября 2015 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать пятая научно-практическая конференция
(24 - 27 ноября 2015 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать шестая научно-практическая конференция
(29 декабря 2015 - 5 января 2016 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать седьмая научно-практическая конференция
(19 - 22 апреля 2016 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать восьмая научно-практическая конференция
(23 - 25 мая 2016 г.)
(отчет)

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