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ethnocentrism as the anthropological concept of cultural relativism

 

Shapran N.

Ostroh Academy National University, Ukraine

 

Аннотация: Этноцентризм это отрицательные суждения об другой культуре стандартами собственной культуры. Этноцентрические суждения это уверенность, что качества собственной культуры намного лучше, чем другие. Хотя этноцентризм рассматривается как барьер в коммуникации, он присущий людям, которые испытывают культурный шок в процессе этноцентрических суждений. Попадая в новую культуру люди могут проходить этап, когда они считают всё о новой культуре намного хуже, чем о своей собственной. Хотя после этого этапа, они обычно начинают рассматривать какую–то культуру не такой плохой или лучше, а просто рассматривают её как разную. Не смотря на современные коммуникационные технологии, которые открывают людям доступ к возрастающему количеству информации о вещах вокруг нас во всем мире, существует все еще тенденция, что люди интересуются больше местными, государственными или национальными новостями. Существуют разные отношения между странами, но международные путешественники всё еще считают, что вещи совсем другие, чем они ожидали, что приводит часто к переживаниям. Экстремальный этноцентризм приводит к отвержению богатства и знаний других культур. Это препятствует общению и блокирует обмен идеями и опытом между людьми. Исключая другие точки зрения этноцентризм, в своей сущности, является лимитирующим и ограничивающим.

Ключевые слова: этноцентризм, межкультурная коммуникация, культура, приспосабливание, антропологическая концепция, барьер, обычаи, различия, поведение, эмоции, обстоятельства.

 

We live in an increasingly complex world. It is believed, that one element of this complexity is the mixing of different languages, cultures and faiths. Intercultural communication is vital for success within the business world. Effective communication between colleagues from different cultural backgrounds ensures a great team work.

Human beings have a great desire to be with people who are similar to themselves. This is because they share the same ways of doing things, the same values and operate by similar rules. When we are with people who are similar to ourselves, the ways of doing things just seem like common sense.

Today the world we live in is "a global village" where no nation, culture or group can remain anonymous. It is well known, that what happens in one part of the world affects all parts of the world. We are increasingly interacting with people from many different cultures, as the world is becoming smaller. While modern technology has made it easier for us to communicate with people anywhere in the world, such interactions can be difficult if we do not know how to deal with cultures and people different from our own. While communicating with someone from a different culture, we can expect cultural differences to have an influence. Cultural differences stem from our differing perceptions, which in turn determine how we communicate with people of other cultures. By understanding how people perceive the world, their beliefs and values, we can better understand what they say and can anticipate potential cross-cultural misunderstandings.

This article is focused on recognizing and avoiding breakdowns in intercultural communication, cultural and ethnographic approaches and examines ethnocentrism as a barrier to effective intercultural communication. Different cultures can take significantly different approaches to personal space, and a lack of cultural understanding can make some people uncomfortable and insult others. While Western culture prefers an arm's length of physical personal space while communicating, according to a 2006 article in the "Journal of Applied Social Psychology," people from some Latin and Middle Eastern cultures stand considerably closer together when speaking. To a Westerner, this personal space violation can lead to discomfort, and the communicator may view a resulting step away as a sign of distrust.

According to an intercultural communication article on the practical advice website Sideroad.com, human nature can lead one to make assumptions about other people; some cultures use stereotypical images to reaffirm these assumptions. Though some stereotypes may stem from factual observations, many build on personal beliefs and fears that individuals may hold. To communicate effectively across cultural boundaries, communicators must put assumptions aside and stereotypes. In the United States, communicators tend to maintain eye contact with others during one-on-one communication, and make sporadic eye contact with an audience while communicating with large groups. Though direct eye contact also symbolizes respect in Western cultures, and in others it can be viewed differently. Native American and some Eastern cultures, for example, consider direct eye contact disrespectful, and a failure to understand these cultural norms regarding eye contact can create significant intercultural communication obstacles.

Different cultures maintain markedly different approaches to time, and communicators who don't understand a culture's time orientation may experience difficulty building relationships in that particular culture. When Americans view time as a commodity, other cultures take a much more lax approach to the subject; some Latin cultures, for example, expect parties to be as much as 30 minutes late when conducting business. It is necessary to mention, that communicators from a culture that views time as a commodity must refrain from becoming upset when a party from another culture arrives late, as the late communicator may view such frustration as insensitive, offensive and demanding. A cultural approach attempts to develop an ideal personification of the culture, and then that ideal is used to explain the actions of individuals in the culture. Liberman describes the unique form of public discourse that evolved among the isolated Aboriginal people of central Australia: Consensus must be preserved through such strategies as avoidance of direct argumentation, unassertiveness, serial summaries and deferral of topics that would produce disharmony so that the people think together and "'speak with one voice." There are no attempts to force a decision, and the discussion is abandoned, if any dissension is sensed.

The cultural and ethnographic approaches are complementary and together they can help our understanding of breakdowns in intercultural communication. Every subgroup culture in general provides its members with rules specifying appropriate and inappropriate behavior. When you try to approach intercultural communication from the perspective of attempting to learn the norms of all cultures and subgroups, it would be an impossible task. There is no way that you could learn all the rules governing appropriate and inappropriate behavior for every culture with which you came into contact. You would always be doing something wrong; you would always be offending someone. Your communication would likely suffer, as your violation of norms would be a form of noise limiting the effectiveness of your communication.

In fact, you would not even know if you were expected to conform to the other's norms or if you were expected to behave according to your own culture's norms while respecting the other culture's norms.

A better approach is to examine on a general level the barriers to intercultural communication. LaRay M. Barna has developed a list of such barriers: assuming, anxiety, ethnocentrism, similarity instead of difference, stereotypes and prejudice, nonverbal misinterpretations and language. These categories of barriers will be used while discussing problems that can arise in intercultural encounters. Taking these common mistakes into consideration can help you to improve your intercultural communication skills.

When you assume similarity between cultures you can be caught unaware of important differences. When you have no information about a new culture, it might make sense to assume there are no differences, and your behavior would be the same as in your native culture. But each culture is different and unique to some degree. You might see people in some circumstances as lacking emotion and others in other circumstances as displaying emotions inappropriately, if you assume that display of emotions is similar to your culture. The inverse can be a barrier as well. Assuming difference instead of similarity can lead to your unrecognizing the important things that cultures share in common. It's better to assume nothing. It's better to ask, "What are the traditions?" rather than assuming they are different ot the same everywhere. One of the essential barriers to effective intercultural communication is ethnocentrism, or negatively judging aspects of another culture by the standards of one's own culture. To be ethnocentric is to believe in the superiority of one's own culture. Everything in a culture is consistent to that culture and makes sense if you understood that culture.

Another name for ethnocentrism is the anthropological concept of cultural relativism. It does not mean that everything is equal. It does mean that we must try to understand other people's behavior in the context of their culture before we judge it. It also means that we recognize the arbitrary nature of our own cultural behaviors and be willing to reexamine them by learning about behaviors in other cultures. A less extreme form of ethnocentrism can be labeled as cultural nearsightedness, or taking one's own culture for granted and neglecting other cultures. For example, people in the United States often use the word Americans to refer to U.S. citizens, but actually that word is the correct designation of all people in North and South America. It should be thought as a form of ethnocentrism.

Cultural nearsightedness often results in making assumptions about the fact, that simple things are the same everywhere. Designing forms for something as simple as a person's name is not that simple if you recognize how widely practices vary. For example, in Mexico people may have two surnames, with the first from the father's first surname and the second from the mother's surname. Often, only the first surname is used and the second abbreviated. When a woman marries, she usually retains both of her surnames and adds her husband's first surname. Or consider China with 1.3 billion people and only about 3,100 surnames, with 90 per cent of the population sharing 100 of them. China has 87 million people sharing the name Li – the most common surname in the world. The name Smith is shared by 2.4 million people in the United States. Some other example is Eurocentric ethnocentrism. This would include recognizing only Western holidays in schools or basing curriculum only on Western history, art and music. The terms "the East" and "the West" themselves have been labeled Eurocentric ethnocentrism. Asia is east of Europe, but to call Asia "the East" makes its identity dependent on Europe.

There is a difference between just respecting your own culture and feeling superior to everyone else's. That is why people change between high ethnocentrism and low ethnocentrism, depending on the situation. Lukens has defined three degrees of ethnocentrism: high, moderate and low ethnocentrism.

Low ethnocentrism means that a person is insensitive in his interaction in dealing with other cultures and treats them as different by for example talking slowly and louder than normal. It is also characterised by the use of pejorative expressions for other groups. Moderate ethnocentrism attempts to minimize contact with out-groups and try to interact with the in-group only as much as possible. The most extreme form is high ethnocentrism or cultural nearsightedness, which neglects foreigners and shows insensitivity towards other cultures by using racist jokes, hate and violence. Ethnocentrism has a lot of negative consequences in communicating and is therefore a big barrier in intercultural communication. Ethnocentrism causes that people base their social interaction on their own cultural norms, which can lead to misunderstandings and eventually to severe miscommunication. Another consequence is that because something is different, the other culture is perceived as wrong and improper and that this becomes a stereotype for everyone from this culture. Ethnocentrism also exaggerates differences between cultures. An ethnocentric person feels superior towards people with other values and habits and therefore the out-group often gets treated inferior, which increases the distance between groups.

Ethnorelativism is the opposite of ethnocentrism and refers to the idea that habits in a certain culture can only be judged by using the standards of that culture as the norm for judgment. We need to remember that our culture is not the only one and definitely not always the 'right' one, because what we consider normal is frequently perceived as weird in another culture. In order to deal with other cultures we need to try to look from a different perspective than our own culture. Ethnocentrism is the belief in the superiority of one’s own values and behaviors, which is a natural attitude inherent in all cultures. People believe that their own values and behaviors are the best and others are not the best, which will cause negative effects in communicating across cultures. Globalization of business spans national borders and the businesspeople are likely to communicate across international cultures. Therefore they have to face challenges of cultures clash in business communication and in the workplace, one challenge of which is ethnocentrism.

Ethnocentrism, which comes from the Greek root ethnos that means a people or group, is the belief in the superiority of one's own race. People believe that their own values and behaviors are the best: the most natural, beautiful, right, or important, and others are inhuman, irrational, unnatural, or wrong. Because people are growing up with their own culture, ethnocentrism is a natural attitude inherent in their cultures that there is no one who is not ethnocentric to some degree, no matter how liberal and open-minded he or she might claim to be (Freidl,n.d.). Moreover, ethnocentrism is deceptive precisely because people of any culture take it for granted that their own values and behaviors are logical. Ethnocentrism is the chief obstacle in cross-culture business communication. Ethnocentrism causes people to judge others by their own values; they assume that other people's attitudes and lives should be like theirs; they will always find some aspect of another culture distasteful, unacceptable. They forget that they are likely to misinterpret the actions of others, and they lose sight of the possibility that their words and actions can be misunderstood too (Bovee & Thill, n.d.). Thus, Problems arise naturally.

Firstly, misunderstandings often arise when business participants are unable to recognize the differences culturally determined. In western society, time is money and it is natural for businesspeople to keep an appointment. So they can not understand why it is so common for Egyptians, for example, to be always late at business meeting. Secondly, consumer ethnocentrism provokes negative attitudes toward both foreign advertisements and foreign products (Kwak & Jaju & Andras, 2006), especially in developed countries. Ethnocentric consumers believe that the purchase of foreign products is unpatriotic, leads to loss of jobs, and thus hurts the domestic economy. Obviously this belief will damage international business development. Thirdly, conflicts due to ethnocentrism increase the chance of failure during international business cooperation and expansion. Business cooperation is set up on common ground of mutual benefit, in which communication on equal status is necessary. Unwillingness to compromise because of ethnocentrism will destroy the common ground and increase the differences between them. For example, the failure of the acquisition of UK Rover through Germany BMW shows the influences of national culture on the management practice and characteristics of both companies are the reasons. Finally, prejudice caused by ethnocentrism brings on unfair recruitment and promotion in a work place. People with ethnocentric perspectives pass judgments and make evaluations of people from other cultures in a biased way (Theta, 2003). Therefore there is a so-called "glass ceiling" over minority employees who have different cultural background, particularly from developing countries.

So, how to overcome ethnocentrism and develop intercultural harmony is a serious question that must be solved in today's global business communication. Businesspeople should recognize that ethnocentrism is a main barrier from achieving intercultural accommodation. Being aware of the differences between one's own culture and others is the first step. Every culture has unique heritage and features. Don't ignore the differences between another culture and your own, which would cause problems. The greater the difference between cultures, the greater the chance for misunderstanding (Bovee & Thill, n.d), and the more attention must be paid to acknowledge these differences.

Respecting other cultures is a fundamental attitude in business transaction. Moreover, it is worth encouraging and appreciating the rich diversity and genius existing in the globe. So win your audience's attention by being respectful, avoid judgment. Rational people want to be treated the way they treat others. Treating others with respect, sensitivity and consideration are vital in conveying business message. Reconciling cultural differences supports effective interaction in diverse values. It is a series of behaviors that "reveals a propensity to share understanding of the other's position in the expectation of reciprocity". Particularly it will create wealth in alliances (including mergers and acquisitions) and in recruitment. Respecting, accepting, and reconciling cultural differences should work with tolerance and empathy, which often result in harmonious compromise. Learning new attitudes and behaviors help bridge gaps between cultures.

Changing attitudes requires an open mind. In general, you may attempt to understand a person by stereotypingdeciding unfairly that a person has particular qualities or abilities because he or she belongs to a particular race. For example, Japanese often stereotype Americans as people who are disrespectful of age and status, and are extravagant (Bovee & Thill, n.d.). Every person is a unique human being; you can generalize the common characteristics of a group, but then you have to move to know individual features. Training is the best approach or tool for developing intercultural competence. Culture is learned. Learning about other cultures helps us to understand that our own cultures are just as important as others (SLCC, 2006). There are two main different types of training - experiential and cognitive training.

In order to decrease ethnocentrism one needs to become aware of one's cultural values, norms, perceptions and beliefs. Everyone has different values and norms and it is important to think about this while communicating with people from other cultures, this is called cultural awareness. Stephanie Quappe and Giovanna Cantatore have divided cultural awareness in different stages. The first is 'My way is the only way' and refers to the ignorance of cultural differences. People in this stage are only aware of their own 'way' and perceive this as the right way. In the second stage people become aware that there are other ways of doing things, but still stick to their own because they feel that is the best way. In the third stage 'my way and their way' people are aware of different ways of doing things and do not stick to their own way anymore, but choose the best way depending on the situation. They are more positive about other cultures and are using them to create solutions and alternatives. The last stage is called 'our way' because in this stage people from different cultures create a new culture of shared values and habits. People in this stage are willing to adapt their own habits to other cultures or exchange them entirely.

To increase your cultural awareness you can do several things to change your attitude towards different cultures: first of all by acknowledging that you do not know what the norms and values of other cultures are, secondly by not stereotyping other cultures and trying to get as much valid information about the culture as possible. Also check you assumptions to increase your understanding and try to look from the other person's point of view. And finally, do not try to make everything equal, celebrate diversity! Experiential training aims to develop intercultural effectiveness skills, while cognitive training aims to develop cultural awareness and interpersonal skills. Different training promotes various aspects of competence. There is no cure-all, "not everyone has seen the principal solution to these problems as lying in intercultural training". So more conscious effort is required to improve the training continually. Finally, overcoming ethnocentrism can decrease friction and increase harmony, and then make your business more productive and effective.

The six steps to intercultural communication are basic pointers that all working in intercultural teams should be aware of to ensure culture becomes a vehicle for positive advancement rather than a barrier.

1.     Break Assumptions

Everyone makes or has assumptions about others. Assumptions are beliefs rather than objective truth and are usually influenced by a number of subjective factors.

For intercultural communication to truly work, people need to assess their assumptions and ask themselves why they hold those ideas or beliefs. By doing so and even openly examining them with others, the initial barrier to intercultural communication is overcome.

2.     Empathise

In order to come to appreciate and understand people from different cultures, empathy is vital. Through putting yourself in someone else's shoes you come to see or appreciate their point of view.

3.     Involve

Involving others in tasks or decision making empowers and builds strong relationships. Using intercultural diversity is in essence a more creative approach to problem solving as it incorporates different points of view.

4.     Discourage Herd Mentality

Herd mentality refers to a closed and one dimensional approach. Such a way of thinking curbs creativity, innovation and advancement as people are restricted in how to think, approach and engage with people or challenges.

Intercultural communication can only flourish and therefore contribute if people are encouraged to think as individuals, bring their cultural influences to the table and share ideas that may be outside the box.

5.     Shun Insensitive Behaviour

People can and do behave in culturally insensitive ways. By attacking someone's person, you attack their culture and therefore their dignity. This can only be divisive.

Intercultural communication is based upon people thinking through words and actions to ensure they do not act inappropriately. When insensitive behaviour is witnessed it is the responsibility of all to shun it and ensure it remains unacceptable.

6.     Be Wise

Wisdom is not called wisdom for nothing. People need to be aware how to interact with people with respect and knowledge. Intercultural communication is essentially founded upon wisdom, i.e. showing maturity of thought and action in dealing with people. Through thinking things out and have background knowledge to intercultural differences much of the communication problems witnessed within business could be avoided.

Consequently, even though modern communication technology allows people access to increasing amounts of information about things happening all over the world, there is still a tendency for people to be more interested in local, state, and national news. In the United States, the most popular news shows do not cover international events in as much detail or accuracy as they do national and local news. It is common for people to form opinions about other countries using only the knowledge acquired through the media. International travelers still often find that things are very different from what they had expected, which sometimes leads to feelings of anxiety.

Extreme ethnocentrism leads to a rejection of the richness and knowledge of other cultures. It impedes communication and blocks the exchange of ideas and skills among peoples. Because it excludes other points of view, an ethnocentric orientation is restrictive and limiting.

 

References

1.     Acar, A. Models, Norm and Goals for English as an International Language Pedagogy and Task Based Language Teaching and Learning. The Asian EFL Journal Vol. 8, 2006

2.     Adger C.T. When difference doesn’t conflict.— Text, 6, 1986.— 223–237 p.

3.     Chomskiy, N. (2011) Language and other Cognitive Systems. What is Special about Language? Language Learning and Development 7, p. 263-278

4.     Cushman D.P., Whiting G.C. An approach to communication theory: towards consensus on rules. — Journal of Communication 22, 1972.— 217–238 p.

5.     Dittmar N. Descriptive and explanatory power of rules in sociolinguistics. In B. Bain, the sociogenesis of language and human conduct. — New York: Plenun, 1983.— 225–255 p.

6.     Fishman J.A. Domains and the relationship between micro and macro–sociolinguistics. In J.J. Gumperz and D. Hymes Directions in sociolinguistics: the ethnography of communication. — New York: Holt, 1972. — 435–453 p.

7.     Fred Edmund Jandt An Introduction to intercultural communication: Identities in a Global Community. — Sage, 2009.— 440 p.

8.     Hill J.A. Language, culture and world view. In F.J. Newmeyer Linquistic: the Cambridge survey. Vol. 4.— Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. — 14–36 p.

9.     Hymes D. The ethnography of speaking.— Washington DC: Anthropological society of Washington, 1962.— 13–53 p.

10.  Judith O., Martin N., Thomas K. Nakayama Intercultural Communication in Contexts.McGraw: Hill Higher Education, 2009.— 544 p.

11.  Khamis M. Code Switching and Code Mixing – http://educationcing.blogspot.com/2012/07/code-switching-and-code-mixing.html

12.  Larry A. Samovar, Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Cengage Learning, 2008.— 496 p.

13.  Littlejohn, S. (2009). Speech act theory. In S. Littlejohn, and K. Foss (Eds.), Encyclopedia of communication theory. (pp. 919-921). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi: Http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.fau.edu/10.4135/9781412959384.n356

14.  Myron W. Lustig Intercultural competence: interpersonal communication across cultures.California : Allyn and Bacon, 2003.384 p.

15.  Perakyla, A. 2008.Coversation Analysis: The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology Online. Retrieved from http://blogs.helsinki.fi/perakyla/files/2008/10/conversationanalysis_0811.pdf

16.  Sandra Lee McKay, Nancy H. Hornberger Sociolinguistics and Language teaching.— Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

17.  Sbisa, Marina, How to read Austin, in Pragmatics, 17:3 (2007), p. 461-473



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(27-31 декабря 2010 г.)
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Десятая научно-практическая конференция
(15-23 марта 2011 г.)
(отчет)
Одинадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(26 апреля 04 мая 2011 г.)
(отчет)
Двенадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(28 мая - 06 июня 2011 г.)
(отчет)
Тринадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(28 октября - 09 ноября 2011 г.)
(отчет)
Четырнадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(12-20 декабря 2011 г.)
(отчет)
Пятнадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(01-07 марта 2012 г.)
(отчет)
Шестнадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(09-14 апреля 2012 г.)
(отчет)
Семнадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(22-26 октября 2012 г.)
(отчет)
Восемнадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(22-26 декабря 2012 г.)
(отчет)
Девятнадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(26 февраля - 3 марта 2013 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцатая научно-практическая конференция
(20-28 апреля 2013 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать первая научно-практическая конференция
(13-18 мая 2013 г.)
(отчет)
Первая международная научно-практическая конференция
"Перспективные направления отечественной науки - ХХI век"
(13-18 мая 2013 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать вторая научно-практическая конференция
(4-9 ноября 2013 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать третья научно-практическая конференция
(10-15 декабря 2013 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать четвертая научно-практическая конференция
(20-25 января 2014 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать пятая юбилейная научно-практическая конференция
(3-7 марта 2014 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать шестая научно-практическая конференция
(7-11 апреля 2014 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать седьмая научно-практическая конференция
(20-25 мая 2014 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать восьмая научно-практическая конференция
(08-13 октября 2014 г.)
(отчет)
Двадцать девятая научно-практическая конференция"
(19-25 ноября 2014 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцатая научно-практическая конференция
(19-25 января 2015 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать первая научно-практическая конференция
(25 февраля - 1 марта 2015 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать вторая научно-практическая конференция
(2 - 7 апреля 2015 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать третья научно-практическая конференция
(20 - 27 мая 2015 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать четвертая научно-практическая конференция
(13 - 17 октября 2015 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать пятая научно-практическая конференция
(24 - 27 ноября 2015 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать шестая научно-практическая конференция
(29 декабря 2015 - 5 января 2016 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать седьмая научно-практическая конференция
(19 - 22 апреля 2016 г.)
(отчет)
Тридцать восьмая научно-практическая конференция
(23 - 25 мая 2016 г.)
(отчет)

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